Agricultural Thermal Inspections (ATI)
Inspection Agricole Thermique (IAT)
An infrared thermal imaging system provides the surface temperature of any object and these data may be used directly or indirectly for many applications. However, this method is suitable for making quality determination of surface temperature than quantitative measurement (Davis and Lettington 1988). This technique has been used in various fields such as medicine, electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering for a long time (Agerskans 1975). The reductions in cost of the equipment and simple operational procedure have created opportunities for the application in several fields of the agricultural and food industries. This technology can be used in all agricultural materials and processes, where heat is generated or lost in space and time (Hellebrand et al. 2002). Small variations (below 1o C) can also be successfully measured with proper equipment and methodology. If the temperature difference is too small, a suitable environment should be created such as increasing or decreasing the temperature of the sample and measuring the rate of cooling or heating (Danno et al. 1980).
Plant leaves possess a complex heterogeneous internal structure and because of this different parts of the leaf contain different amounts of water per unit area, affecting thermal properties. The important parameters in plant physiology such as transpiration rate, heat capacity per unit area of the leaf, and the water flow velocity can be measured to high temporal and spatial resolution by thermal imaging techniques (Christoph et al. 2002). Identification of diseases in the 4 field nursery before visible symptoms occur, irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture content and plant parameters, detection of fruits and vegetables on the plants to guide mechanical harvesting, and yield forecasting are the potential areas in which thermal imaging methods may be utilized effectively in the agricultural fields.
Local microclimatic changes in the field nursery will cause severe damage to the tender seedlings. Early detection of dampness and disease in a nursery is very important to take early control measures. The microclimatic changes inside the nursery site can be mapped with great spatial accuracy using infrared thermography. In a field nursery, significant positive correlation was found between seedling temperature and degree of damage (Hellebrand et al. 2002). The warmest seedlings had a lower survival rate than the cooler seedlings (Egnell and Orlander 1993). Kim and Lee (2004) developed algorithms to detect the quality of potato transplants using visual and thermal imaging. Potato transplants were grown at three photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels of 50, 150, 250 µmol.m2 s-1 and four electrical conductivity levels of 700, 1400, 2100, 2800 µs.cm-1. The leaf temperature was higher (by about 0.5 to 2.0o C) for the transplants grown at PPF of 50 µmol.m2 s-1 than the other two treatments. The authors stated that thermal and visual characteristics of potato transplants can be used to monitor the transplants’ grown at low PPF.
Infrared thermometry may be used to schedule irrigation based on soil moisture content and plant parameters such as evapo-transpiration, stomatal conductance, and closing of stomata (Jones 1999). Inoue et al. (1990) determined the transpiration and stomatal conductance using infrared thermometry. Temperature of the canopy was taken with the help of a handheld infrared thermal camera in a cotton field. Transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were calculated using canopy temperature and other meteorological data in a model. A porometer was used to measure transpiration and stomatal conductance in the field simultaneously. Crop stress indices calculated by remote infrared thermometry were linearly related with porormeter values and R2 of 0.79 and 0.93 for transpiration and stomatal resistance, respectively. Berliner et al. (1984) determined the crop stress for wheat using infrared thermometry. A thermal camera was installed on a platform located on the top of a pole (3.3 m height) in the field. In addition to canopy temperature, wet and dry bulb temperatures, wind speed, and solar radiation were also recorded simultaneously. Stomatal resistance and water potential had a linear relationship with canopy temperature and the R2 were 0.64 and 0.65, respectively. For the implementation of canopy temperature as a water stress index, no meteorological data other than infrared measurement is required. Landsat thermal bands could be used to study the irrigation status of the field and different stages of growth of crops (Perdikou et al. 2002). Kalma and Jupp (1990) used infrared thermometry data to develop a model for estimating the evaporation from a pasture. All metabolic activities of a plant cause variation in temperature and hence, research on the quantification of changes in temperature on the canopy with respect to various plant parameters would yield valuable information required for precision farming.
Time series data models are the commonly used methods to estimate yield for many crops in almost all parts of the world. But most of the time, high deviation is observed in the actual yield from the forecasted yield. Smith et al. (1985) analyzed the relationship between wheat yield and one-time measurement (daytime) of temperature difference between foliage and ambient air temperature (Tf-Ta). For foliage temperature measurement, they used a thermal camera (3o field of view lens) which received the infrared radiation in the spectral wavelength of 8-14 µm. The camera was held at 1.5 m height in the field and focused on the foliage at 30o . In addition to ambient and foliage temperatures, associated micrometeorological data were collected during the wheat growing stages from jointing to maturity. The experiment was conducted for two crop seasons (1982 and 1983) on a red-brown soil in Australia. Transpiration and the associated aerodynamic characteristics and canopy stomatal resistances to water vapor transport were predicted from the collected temperature 5 data. They determined that the predicted transpiration and CO2 assimilation rates were closely related to yield within each year but not between years. The regression coefficients for Tf-Ta and various yield parameters are shown in Table 2. It was stated that infrared thermometry would be a useful technique for studying yield variations in agronomic experiments.
Agricultural Efficient Crop Spraying (AECS)
Vaporisation de Champs Agricoles Efficace (VCAE)
The DJI Agras MG-1 is an octocopter designed for precision variable rate application of liquid pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides, bringing new levels of efficiency and manageability to the agricultural sector.
The powerful propulsion system enables the MG-1 to carry up to 10kg of liquid payloads, including pesticide and fertilizer. The combination of speed and power means that an area of 4,000-6,000 m² can be covered in just 10 minutes, or 40 to 60 times faster than manual spraying operations. The intelligent spraying system automatically adjusts its spray according to the flying speed so that an even spray is always applied. This way, the amount of pesticide or fertilizer is precisely regulated to avoid pollution and economize operations.
7-10Acres / Hour
40-60 times faster than manual spraying
RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY
Equipment used in plant protection operations is susceptible to dust and corrosion, leading to high cost of maintenance and shortened lifespans. To counteract degradation, the MG-1 is designed with a sealed body and an efficient, integrated centrifugal cooling system. As it flies, the surrounding air enters the aircraft body via the front inlet, equipped with a triple filter system that keeps dust and particulate matter from entering. The air then passes through each of the aircraft’s arms to the motors, capturing heat from all components and the entire structure before exiting and dissipating the heat to the surrounding air. The combination of cooling and filtering increases the expected lifespan of each motor by up to three times.
Spray nozzles can be chosen according to the properties of each liquid to optimize atomization, energy efficiency and the amount of liquid sprayed. The included nozzle is resistant to wear and can be used for thousands of hours of effective spraying without degradation. In total, the MG-1 has four nozzles, each placed directly below a motor. The downward airflow generated by the propellers accelerates the spray, increasing its reach.
By integrating a microwave radar together with the MG-1's intelligent flight control system, the aircraft is able to scan the below terrain in real-time, and adjust to keep a constant, centimeter accurate, height above crops. Spray density is maintained even as the terrain rises and drops, so that the optimal amount of liquid is applied at all times.
Real Estate Aerial Footage (REAF)
Photos/Videos Aériennes Agences Immobilières (PVAAI)
3D Participatory Mapping (3DPM)
Cartographie Participative 3D (CP3D)
Search and Rescue Services (SRS)
Services de Recherche et Sauvetage (SRS)
Search and Rescue is an activity where speed could be make all the difference in saving a life. The DJI Zenmuse XT thermal camera, developed in collaboration with thermal imaging experts FLIR, provides rescuers with an easily deployable aerial thermal imaging system that dramatically accelerates the search for missing people by highlighting thermal signatures and can even see through foliage. Paired with the DJI Matrice 100, the Zenmuse XT provides a class leading flight time of 30 minutes. This allows it to cover vast areas in a single flight, searching more area than any one group of people would be capable of. Additionally, the Matrice 100 provides access to the DJI SDK, where dedicated search and rescue tools such as search patterns and full autopilot controls can be developed. Connected to the DJI Inspire, the XT becomes a rapid launch aerial system. Able to go from packed away to in the air in just 3 minutes, it is ideal for urgent situations that need an eye in the sky as quickly as possible
Public Safety Firefighting (PSF)
Incendie Sécurité Public (ISP)
Using either a Zenmuse X3 or Zenmuse X5 camera, fire teams can evaluate a blaze to determine its route and rate of travel and any structures or areas at particular risk. This allows fire chiefs on the ground to send their teams exactly where they are needed
By mounting the DJI Zenmuse XT onto the DJI Inspire 1 firefighters can leverage thermal imaging to see through thick smoke, allowing them to identify particular hot points and the source of the fire.
Paired with a Matrice 100, firefighters benefit from extended flight times, allowing for more careful monitoring. All of these technologies provide firefighters with valuable information to help them make the right decisions as quickly as possible.
Aerial Photos/Videos Shooting (APVS)
Tournage de Vidéos et Photos Aériennes (TVPA)